It is an overgrowth of tissue in the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. It’s similar to a skin tag. This means that it’s basically normal tissue but growing in an abnormal form.
A lot of polyps are very small (a few millimetres in diameter) and don’t compromise reproductive capabilities. With that said, large or multiple polyps may interfere with reproduction by causing infertility or increasing the risks for miscarriage.


Similar to an intrauterine device (IUD), uterine polyps may act as a contraceptive by preventing an embryo from implanting in the uterus.

Some evidence suggests that the body attacks polyps as foreign elements. This may lead to inflammation which will make it more difficult for implantation.

Polyps may cause blockage where the fallopian tube enters the uterine cavity. This prevents the sperm from finding an egg to fertilize. Polyps may also block the canal of the cervix which directly blocks the uterus. Polyps may also contribute to miscarriages. Polyps can play a major role in infertility.


The most common symptom of polyps is irregular menses. Other indicators may include:

  • Bleeding between menstrual periods
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Infertility

Some women may experience light bleeding or spotting. Some women may not even experience any symptoms.


Options in women with milder cases may include:

  • Simply waiting: Small polyps that do not cause symptoms may resolve on their own. They may not impact fertility which makes treatment unnecessary.
  • Hormone medication Uterine polyps can be shrunken by certain medication and lessen symptoms. Medication is normally prescribed for a short period of time and the symptoms often come back after medication stops.

Uterine polyps can contain cancerous cells. Your doctor will speak to you about the next steps for treatment if this is the case. Thankfully, less than 1 percent of polyps are associated with cancer.

Symptoms of uterine polyps are similar to those of endometrial cancer and other serious conditions. Hence, it’s important to visit a doctor when you the symptoms first occur. Uterine polyps rarely recur after treatment. When they do, they’ll require more treatment.


  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG): Dye is injected into the uterus and fallopian tubes to see different kinds of tissue and to determine size and extent of any existing polyps.
  • Hysteroscopy: A scope is inserted through the vagina and into the uterus to examine for polyps. Your doctor can take polyp samples for biopsy. The doctor can also perform a procedure called curettage, in which the polyps are removed by scraping the uterine wall.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound: Images of the uterine area are taken to help identify polyps. Your doctor inserts a wand into the vagina and high-frequency sound waves from the wand that will then project images of the uterine area on a monitor.
  • Sonohysterogram: Saline solution is injected into the uterine area in order to inflate the uterus. This approach may sometimes reveal polyps that may have been overlooked in a standard ultrasound.